Difference Between NTSC, PAL, and SECAM (With Table)

In the World, there is three TV system that is popular NTSC, PAL, and SECAM, and these three systems give the standard of television transmission used. Every Country uses these standards as per their need. Each three have their quality and specifications.

NTSC vs PAL vs SECAM

The main difference between NTSC, PAL, and SECAM is that NTSC is developed in the United States and is compatible with the 525-line system, PAL is develop by Europe (United Kingdom). It is compatible with the 625-line system of Europe. On the Other hand, SECAM is develop by France and it is compatible with the 625-line system.

NTSC which is also called the National television system committee is develop by the United States. NTSC originally developed black and white television then started developing a color television system. Its picture uses 525 interlaced lines which enhances the frame rate of video without utilizing any extra bandwidth.

PAL which is also called phase alternate line is developed by the United Kingdom (Europe). PAL is used in the maximum country of the European Union. Its picture uses a 625 interlaced line which enhances the frame rate of video streaming without using any extra bandwidth.

SECAM which is also called Sequential Colour and memory is developed by France. SECAM-based video formats are used in maximum eastern countries like China Russia and a few other countries. Its picture uses 625 interlaced lines which enhances the frame rate of video quality without utilizing extra bandwidth.

Comparison Table Between NTSC, PAL, and SECAM

Parameter of comparison NTSCPAL SECAM
Developed byNTSC is developed and adopted by the United StatesPAL is develop and adopted the UK and entire EuropeSECAM is developed and adopted by France and eastern countries
Frame rateNTSC uses the frame rate of 60 fields per secondPAL uses the frame rate of 50 fields per secondSECAM uses the frame rate of 50 fields per second
Color BurstNTSC uses nine cycles of subcarrier frequencyPAL uses ten cycles of subcarrier frequencySECAM uses burst cycle blue and red subcarrier frequency
Horizontal and Vertical Pixel NumberNTSC uses 720 Horizontal and 483 Vertical pixel numberPAL uses 720 Horizontal and 575 Vertical pixel numberSECAM uses 1920 Horizontal and 1080 Vertical pixel numbers
Sub-carrier frequencyNTSC uses frequency of 3.58 MegaHertZPAL uses frequency of 4.43 MegaHertZSECAM uses frequency of 4.25 or 4.4 MegaHertZ

What is NTSC?

National Television System Committee uses in the United States of America having compatible with 525 interlaced lines having a video frame rate of sixty fields per second that reduces visible flickering in the video. NTSC has low inherent picture noise that says it has better signal power than noise power. NTCS circuit system has simpler circuits than PAL and SECAM. NTSC uses color information transmission of U & V or I & Q signals.

I and Q color transmissions are used to combine a color subcarrier of frequency 3.58Hz with the use of two balanced modulators. There are various variants of NTSC like NTSC -J (Japan), NTSC-M (same as NTSC- Japan), NTSC 4.43 (VCRs). NTSC has easy studio mixing, Which is available more cheaply than PAL, whereas NTSC is much suspectable to hue fluctuations.

What is PAL?

Phase Alternating line used in Europe with a comparability of 625 interlaced lines, which have a video frame rate of fifty fields per second. PAL is a modification of NTSC, which avoids color distraction. It uses color information transmission of U & V signals.

PAL has a greater number of scan line that provides more picture details. It has more stable hues than NTSC because it corrects the error by phase alternation.

PAL has easy study coloring than another television system. It provides good contrast than NTSC in pictures because it has a higher gamma ratio of 2:8.

PAL is various variants B, D, G, H, I, N, M, & Nc. It uses ten cycles of sub-carrier frequency in a color burst. But it has disadvantages of more flickering in pictures because of its lower frame rate and has lower S/N ratio than NTSC

What is SECAM?

Sequential color and memory used in eastern countries and developed by France with compatibility of 625 interlaced lines, which have a video frame rate of fifty fields per seconds and interlaced systems of 2:1. It uses color information transmission of R & B together that sent one by one. There are various variants of SECAM like B, G, D, K, K¹, and L (B and G use the bandwidth of 5MHz and others use 6MHz.

In the SECAM system, there is no need for hue control and saturation control which is needed in NTSC and PAL. It has more scan lines than NTSC. It has disadvantages on studio mixing which is difficult to implement in SECAM. It uses a burst cycle of red (Dr signal) and blue (Db signal) sub-carrier frequency.

Main Differences Between NTSC, PAL, and SECAM

  1. NTSC was develop by the US; PAL is develop by the UK. On the other hand, SECAM is develop by France.
  2. NTSC has a frame rate of 60/seconds. On the other hand, PAL and SECAM have frame rates of 50/seconds.
  3. NTSC has a subcarrier frequency of 3.58MHz, PAL has a subcarrier frequency of 4.43MHz. On the other hand, SECAM has a subcarrier frequency of 4.25 or 4.4MHz
  4. NTSC and PAL have easy in-studio mixing. On the other hand, SECAM faces difficulty in studio mixings.
  5. NTSC has 525 lines, PAL and SECAM have 625 lines

Conclusion

In the television system, everyone needed a streaming system smooth with a Good screen frame rate which provides better picture quality. NTSC, PAL, and SECAM provide this facility in various countries across the globe. However, these three have some differences in their quality and number of users. But they give better experience as per country’s own need and budget.

The world is evolving in technology and started manufacturing high technology to address the demand of people in a television system.

References

  1. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1405734/
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7261607/