Difference Between ANOVA and ANCOVA (With Table)

When more samples are involved, ANOVA may be in various domains, including business, economics, psychology, biology, and education. Because both to analyze the variation in the mean values of the dependent variable produced by controlled independent variables after accounting for the effects of an uncontrolled independent variable, ANCOVA is sometimes confused with ANCOVA.

Two or more populations may be using ANOVA, a statistical approach. Comparing one variable across people while considering other variables is known as ANCOVA.


The main difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA is that Group homogeneity may be using the ANOVA technique. ANCOVA is the name given to removing multiple metric scale effects. Analyzing variance by repeated measures (ANOVA) is a standard statistical technique in linear and nonlinear models. To apply the ANCOVA, you must use a linear model. When using ANOVA, Group(WG) characteristics vary according to the individual, and everyone’s division is different.

When comparing three or more standards, it comes in helpful. Must examine agriculture, psychology, and a variety of other businesses. Individual observations are assumed to be independent, the measurement levels between the DV and the underlying populations are equal, and there is similar variation in both people.

It’s referred to as a general linear model in statistical analysis. Analogous comparisons between independent and dependent variables using an ANCOVA analysis. Sometimes, the use of the ANCOVA is considered therapeutic. Continuous variables, covariates, or nuisance variables are ANCOVA’s primary objective. Analytical non-parametric variance reduction analysis.

Comparison Table Between ANOVA and ANCOVA

Parameters of comparisonANOVAANCOVA
DefinitionANOVA compares the means of several data groups to see whether there is any uniformity.ANCOVA is a method for eliminating metric-scaled undesirable factors from the dependent variable before doing any study.
Stands forVariance Analysis (ANOVA)Analysis of Covariance
UsesThere is a mix of linear and nonlinear models.The linear model is utilized alone.
IncludesCategorical variableVariables that are both categorical and numerical

What is ANOVA?

Two or more populations use an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the difference in their mean values. ANOVA is a statistical method for estimating this difference. The dataset’s total variance into random variations due to specific causes. Using this method, you may determine whether or not the independent variable affects the dependent one. Use it to study the differences between different categories in variables having an extensive range of possible values.  Analyzing the differences between two separate groups using a single factor with several alternative values is one technique to apply ANOVA.

A two-way ANOVA is a kind of ANOVA in which two factors simultaneously examine the interaction between the two factors and the values of a variable. An ANOVA statistical model may compare three or more variables depending on the population size. It’s a statistical tool frequently used in business, agriculture, economics, psychology, biology, and education, among other disciplines. The ANOVA may result in a variety of ways. The linear model is the foundation of ANOVA.

 The factor thresholds will be crossed by nonlinear models while finding only ideal solutions for linear models. Unbalanced data will need extra inquiry since it is more difficult to analyze—the experimental units random treatments. Before beginning the experiment, it is necessary to note the randomization. Random assignment’s primary purpose is to provide a null hypothesis.

What is ANCOVA?

They analyze the Covariance of one or more interval-scaled extraneous variables before researching ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance). One variable is examined in two or more populations while also considering the variability of the other variables in this ANOVA/regression hybrid.

ANCOVA is when a set of independent variables includes both a factor (categorical independent variable) and a covariate (additional independent variable) (metric independent variable). Each treatment condition adjusts the mean value of the dependent variable to remove the covariate-induced gap independent variables.

This technique is appropriate for independent metric variables linked to the dependent variable. The following assumptions to support it:

  • The hanging and uncontrolled factors are related.
  • Linear and identical connections exist from one group to another.
  • Randomly selected individuals are assigned to one of many therapy tiers.
  • Variation within a group is homogenous.

Analyzing Covariance is the acronym for ANCOVA. To accurately predict at least one of the variables, the statistical model must incorporate both a continuous and a categorical predictor. The method is a mix of ANOVA and regression analysis. Might compare two or more additional variables to one another in this situation.

A difference in independent variables was created by altering the mean value of the dependent variable within each treatment condition, thereby removing the covariate.

Main Differences Between ANOVA and ANCOVA

  • Analytical Variation, or ANOVA, is a technique for evaluating homogeneity in the means of different groups. It is possible to remove undesired factors from the dependent variable before performing research using the ANCOVA statistical approach.
  •  In ANOVA, models that are both linear and nonlinear are utilized. However, ANCOVA applies just a linear model.
  • ANOVA uses only categorical independent variables or factors. Instead, an absolute and a metrics outcome variable in the ANCOVA. A covariate is in an ANOVA, but it is in an ANCOVA.
  • ANOVA differentiates between treatment-related differences and differences between groups. Instead, ANCOVA examines differences between treatment and covariate groups separately.
  • ANOVA is used to display variations among individuals within a group. Regarding individual differences and covariates, ANCOVA separates the variance within groups into two halves.


Following your reading of this information, you should distinguish between the two statistical methodologies. ANOVA, a statistical method, may compare two groups of people. On the other hand, ANCOVA is a kind of analysis of variance that combines the results of ANOVA with those of regression analysis. Modelling differences between two variables using an ANOVA procedure is what they do when they do an ANCOVA analysis. ANOVA uses linear and nonlinear models, while ANCOVA relies only on a linear model. However, ANCOVA does contain a covariate.

Both have a wide range of tools at their disposal to aid in the generation of more insightful conclusions. The formulas will help you find the results more quickly. Using ANOVA, you can do even the most complex calculations. There are a wide variety of analytic methods available in the ANOVA approach. The ANCOVA strategy uses a variety of assumptions, and Analytical power methods are taken into consideration by the ANCOVA.


  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02294394
  2. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0163278703255248