Difference Between Akinesia and Akathisia (With Table)

The human body is astonishingly well-made. Though, diseases could wreak havoc on the human body’s regular operation. Diseases, it is often said, lead our bodies to malfunction. Viruses, bacteria, pathogens, fungus, and other microorganisms can all contribute to the disease. Any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state is identified by the signs and symptoms.

Among the various illnesses that exist, A functional disorder is a medical ailment that affects the normal functioning of biological functions but is difficult to identify by physical examination or perhaps even through a microscope. Functional neurologic disorder, also known as conversion disorder, is a newer and wider term that describes neurological disorders. The symptoms, on the other hand, are genuine and can cause severe anguish or make it difficult to function. Depending on the kind of functional neurologic illness, signs and symptoms may involve unique patterns. This condition usually impairs your mobility or senses, such as your ability to walk, breathe, perceive, or hear.

Akinesia vs Akathisia

The main difference between akinesia and akathisia is that the people who have lost voluntary control over their motions are said to have akinesia. Akathisia is a condition in which people feel unsettled and possess the urge to move constantly. The individual suffering from akinesia is usually suffering from Parkinson’s disease. However, it can also occur as a result of other factors. Akathisia is defined by a person’s constant need to move as resting makes them uncomfortable. Akathisia primarily affects the legs. Slow bodily movement and freeze are two of Akinesia’s symptoms. Restless emotions in the body are one of Akathisia’s symptoms.

Akinesia is a movement condition in which the person loses conscious control over their movements. Akinesia has progressive causes. The majority of Akinesia disorders are incurable. It can only be treated with medicine. Freezing is one of the most typical manifestations of Akinesia. It signifies that a neurological disorder has rendered one of the person’s bodily parts immobile. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a dynamic brain disease, can also be the reason of the affliction.

Akathisia is a disorder in which a person feels restless all of the time and wants to move about. It affects the legs the most, and it can cause a nagging feeling throughout the body. Suicidal thoughts, hostility, and violence are among the most severe symptoms of Akathisia. Although medication can help with Akathisia, it is sometimes misdiagnosed as a neuropsychiatric disorder with no symptoms or abnormalities. Certain antiepileptic medications and medicines that inhibit dopamine receptors can also cause akathisia.

Comparison Table Between Akinesia and Akathisia

Parameters of ComparisonAkinesiaAkathisia
SymptomsA sense of stiffness and a slowing down of motor activities.Fidgeting and wander about erratically.
CausesProgressive Supranuclear palsy (PSP), Hypothyroidism and Parkinson’s diseaseParkinson’s illness or severe brain damage can also cause it. Other causes include encephalitis, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and others.
DiagnosisIn Parkinson’s disease, dopamine levels in the brain can assist manage dyskinesia. Carbidopa and levodopa are some of the medications.Propranolol and benzodiazepine medications are both effective. Changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, help govern movement.
FetusMay occur in fetusDoesn’t happen generally
ComplicationsMuscle stiffness, incapacity, walking difficulties, and so forth.May result in suicidal ideation or acts of violence.

What is Akinesia?

Akinesia is defined as a lack of movement, is worsened by spontaneity, which is characterized by motor slowness and rigidity. A clinical examination and a list of symptoms are used to diagnose akinesia. Fetuses are sometimes diagnosed with the disease. FADS stands for fetal akinesia deformation sequence, and it can result in stillbirth.

In the case of akinesia, movement is generally sluggish or takes too long. A sense of stiffness and a slowdown of motor activity are common. When a person has akinesia, they may appear to be frozen in place. Joint contracture is visible in FADS fetuses, and the lungs are not fully developed. Akinesia is frequently mistaken with dyskinesia. It is, however, a far cry from it. A person with akinesia is unable to move his or her muscles at all. It does not imply that the body’s muscles have lost their capacity to move.

What is Akathisia?

A physical examination is required, as well as testing and elimination of other illnesses with comparable symptoms. Conditions like ADHD and perhaps even anxiety can be mistaken for akathisia, therefore they must be checked out. Antipsychotics is a phrase that is frequently used to describe akathisia. Because it has the potential to trigger Akathisia. Dopamine levels may drop when antipsychotic medication is stopped.

Akathisia patients are always on the move and fidgeting. They may move their legs a lot and wander about erratically. Patients may also experience tension, anxiety, and irritability. In addition to their movement problem, people may experience worry and sadness. Akathisia can be misdiagnosed as a mood illness, restless legs syndrome (RLS), anxiety, sleeplessness, and other conditions. Stopping the medicine is occasionally used to treat acute akathisia.

Main Differences Between Akinesia and Akathisia

  1. The condition of akinesia is characterized by a lack of cognitive control over movement. Akathisia is a condition where a person is always restless and desires to move.
  2. Parkinson’s disease and some drugs can produce akinesia; hypothyroidism and heredity can also cause the disorder. Parkinson’s illness, severe brain damage, encephalitis, and certain drugs can all produce akathisia.
  3. Slow mobility and a feeling of being frozen in place are two signs of akinesia. Akathisia is characterised by a restless feeling and a constant need to move.
  4. A kind of akinesia can occur in embryos of babies on rare occasions. Akathisia is a disorder that does not affect foetuses.
  5. Carbidopa and levodopa are two medications that are used to treat akinesia. A variety of medications, including  benzodiazepines, and anti-cholinergics, are used to treat akathisia.

Conclusion

People with Parkinson’s disease might have both akathisia and akinesia symptoms. Akinesia and akathisia can both be treated with medication. Akinesia, or the inability to move, can occur unexpectedly. As a result, akinesia, or a lack of spontaneity marked by motor  stiffness, while, akathisia, or a sensation of inner restlessness, are prevalent but sometimes misunderstood neuroleptic adverse effects.

References

  1. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/495089
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1984-29428-001